SIM-AM 2023

Control-Structure Integrated Design of Thermoelastic Structures using Mechanical Metamaterials: Application to Optical Benches on Satellites

  • Buchmann, Erhard (University of the Bundeswehr Munich)
  • Prestes, Isabel (University of the Bundeswehr Munich)
  • Möller, Florian (University of the Bundeswehr Munich)
  • Musil, Bruno (University of the Bundeswehr Munich)
  • Jägle, Eric Aimé (University of the Bundeswehr Munich)
  • Höfer, Philipp (University of the Bundeswehr Munich)

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Thermoelastic metamaterials are a class of metamaterials that allow architecting a specific thermal expansion behaviour of components. This designates at first the design of the passive behaviour, so the expansion when heated homogenously. Then, the reactive behaviour on certain perturbations (e.g. heating sources) and external stimuli can be designed. In particular, however, functional thermoelastic metamaterial structures with feedback-control can also be architectured. This allows the control-structure integrated design of thermoelastic structures, which is addressed rarely in previous works. Nevertheless, this would pave the way to very promising applications in various fields ranging from MEMS to satellite-borne optical systems. While the activation of thermoelastic metamaterials can be done with simple joule heating, the manufacturing of those materials is challenging: At least two materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) have to be arranged in complex lattice structures. However, they become available for structural parts due to the recent advances in metallic multi-material L-PBF. Thermoelastic metamaterials would be particularly suitable for building optical benches for space applications, which is not considered in research until now. Satellites undergo wide temperature variations when orbiting the earth which would result in large dimensional variations of integrated optical benches. Traditionally, the dimensional stability of optical benches is established by using materials with low CTE or by mitigating these temperature variations. In contrast, in this work truss structures with thermoelastic metamaterial elements and feedback-control for optical benches are considered. The dimensional stability is reached as a closed-loop system. This design has many advantages, including the higher structural efficiency, the lower precision requirements in manufacturing and the possibility for in-orbit re-adjustments. After reviewing the requirements for optical benches, a parametrized FEM-model with an LQ-regulator for control-structure integrated design is presented. Then, the impact of the truss layout and the way of integrating thermoelastic metamaterials on the control performance is investigated. Finally, an exemplary optical bench for the SeRANIS-Mission [1] is designed and the closed-loop dimensional stability is shown by a transient simulation with orbital thermal loads.