SIM-AM 2023

Coupled CFD-DEM Approach for Modeling Melt Pool Dynamics and Solidification in Selective Laser Melting

  • Aminnia, Navid (University of Luxembourg)
  • Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio (University of Luxembourg)
  • Peters, Bernhard (University of Luxembourg)

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The complex process of melting a layer of powder particles with a moving laser beam involves multiple phases and physics processes, including thermal transfer, thermal-induced phase transformation, and solid-fluid-air interactions. These dynamics are driven by Marangoni forces on the surface of the melt pool, which are influenced by the powder bed characteristics and the different modes of heat and mass transfer between the particles, the melt, and the ambient gas. Understanding the interactions between the powder bed and melt pool during the melting process is crucial to resolving the issue of pore defects in additively manufactured parts. Multiphysics simulations using a coupled thermally coupled CFD-DEM model have proved to be an efficient tool for investigating melt pool dynamics and predicting the effect of different parameters on melt pool characteristics[1]. In this study, a thermally coupled CFD-DEM model is presented that accounts for the phase changes of solid and liquid and the thermal exchange between solid particles, the substrate, the melt, and the ambient gas. The Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with coupled thermodynamics is utilized to model the fluid mixture, including the melt, ambient gas, and solid, and obtain a more detailed understanding of the interactions between the powder particles and the melt pool. The eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is used as the Lagrangian method and a multiphase CFD model in OpenFOAM is used as the Eulerian method to capture the highly dynamic deformations of the melt pool[2]. The resulting coupled CFD-DEM approach predicts the melt pool evolution and is validated as an efficient tool for understanding the complex liquid-solid interaction of a selective laser melting process. The simulation framework developed in this study can be applied to modeling laser melting and solidification in multi-track scenarios. [1] Estupinan Donoso, A.A. and Peters, B., 2018. Exploring a multiphysics resolution approach for additive manufacturing. JOM, 70(8), pp.1604-1610. [2] Aminnia, N., Estupinan Donoso, A.A. and Peters, B., 2022. Developing a DEM-Coupled OpenFOAM solver for multiphysics simulation of additive manufacturing process. Scipedia. com.